serazienne
Monolinguals often assume that this kind of switching happens because speakers are not competent in one of their languages - a sort of deficit hypothesis - or because a concept just can’t be expressed in one of the languages - a sort of lexical gap explanation. Analysis of recorded multilingual speech doesn’t support these ideas, however. Speakers who code-switch the most often are usually those who are the most fluent in both of their languages, and there are linguistic rules about where in a sentence a switch can happen.

Van Herk, What Is Sociolinguistics, chapter 11. (via transliterations)

The Wikipedia article on code-switching has a nice classification of the types and linguistic rules involved: 

  • Intersentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). It is sometimes called "extrasentential" switching. In Assyrian-English switching one could say, “Ani wideili. What happened?” (“Those, I did them. What happened?”)
  • Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause. In Spanish-English switching one could say, “La onda is to fight y jambar." ("The in-thing is to fight and steal.”)
  • Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from one language to another, (common in intra-sentential switches). In Spanish-English switching one could say, “Él es de México y así los criaron a ellos, you know.” (“He’s from Mexico, and they raise them like that, you know.”)
  • Intra-word switching occurs within a word itself, such as at a morpheme boundary. In Shona-English switching one could say, “But ma-day-s a-no a-ya ha-ndi-si ku-mu-on-a. (“But thesedays I don’t see him much.”) Here the English plural morpheme -s appears alongside the Shona prefix ma-, which also marks plurality.


(via allthingslinguistic)

cabin-in-thewoods
spiritualinspiration:

Have you ever gone through something and felt like it was the valley of the shadow of death? During the tough times, it’s easy to get discouraged. But I love what it says in today’s verse, “though I walk through…”
No matter what you are facing today, know this: you are not alone, and you are just walking through. You don’t have to stop and live in the tough times! They are only temporary. I encourage you today; don’t allow fear to paralyze you in the middle of “the valley of the shadow of death.” Remember, God is with you. He is walking beside you. He is strengthening you. He is making a way of escape for you. He is lining up people and situations to bring you out of that tough place into a place of strength and victory.
Today, don’t give up! Press on and walk through! Start to get a vision of your life on the other side. See yourself more loving, more faithful, stronger and more blessed than ever before. As you keep moving forward and walking through, you will get to the other side and walk in the victory God has prepared for you!

spiritualinspiration:

Have you ever gone through something and felt like it was the valley of the shadow of death? During the tough times, it’s easy to get discouraged. But I love what it says in today’s verse, “though I walk through…”

No matter what you are facing today, know this: you are not alone, and you are just walking through. You don’t have to stop and live in the tough times! They are only temporary. I encourage you today; don’t allow fear to paralyze you in the middle of “the valley of the shadow of death.” Remember, God is with you. He is walking beside you. He is strengthening you. He is making a way of escape for you. He is lining up people and situations to bring you out of that tough place into a place of strength and victory.

Today, don’t give up! Press on and walk through! Start to get a vision of your life on the other side. See yourself more loving, more faithful, stronger and more blessed than ever before. As you keep moving forward and walking through, you will get to the other side and walk in the victory God has prepared for you!

infelicific

bootsnblossoms:

femininefreak:

Gloria Steinem and Dorothy Pitman-Hughes, 1972 and 2014

Both by Dan Bagan

Wanna see my cry like a baby? Ask me who these women were.

Hughes’ father was beaten nearly to death by the KKK when she was a kid, and what does she do? Become an activist to try and stop that from happening to other people. She raised money to bail civil rights protesters out of jail. She helped women get out of abusive situations by providing shelter for them until they got on their feet. She founded an agency that helped women get to work without having to leave their children alone, because childcare in the 1970s? Not really a thing. In fact, a famous feminist line in the 70s was “every housewife is one man away from welfare.”

Then she teamed up with Steinman to found the Women’s Action Alliance, which created the first battered women’s shelters in history. They attacked women’s rights issues through boots on the ground activism, problem solving, and communication. They stomped over barriers of race and class to meet women where they were: mostly mothers who wanted better for themselves and their children.

These are women are who I always wanted to be.